At the beginning of the 20th century, tens of thousands of newcomers from back east arrived in Southern California, looking for a change. Attracted by the climate and landscape, they built homes that embraced their new surroundings. The California Craftsman bungalow saw its heyday from about 1905 to 1915, when the need for new housing dovetailed with the handmade, back-to-nature ethos of the Arts and Crafts movement. “It took off here because people who came to California at that time appreciated the more relaxed lifestyle, the climate, the topography,” said Edward Bosley, director of Pasadena’s Gamble House, the icon of Craftsman architecture. “A fresh architectural style went with that.” Wide, low-slung, gabled roofs emblematic of the style would have groaned beneath snowfall elsewhere, but here they offered plenty of shade for the broad porches below. The abundant windows also maximized year-round sunny days; sleeping porches were used during summer nights and, in the winter, prominent fireplaces kept the homes toasty. The flow of fresh air and natural light united indoors and outdoors in a way not feasible in most other places in the country. That blurring also came from the choice of of local materials and finishes: California redwood, river rock from the Arroyo Seco, handcrafted Batchelder tiles from Pasadena, earth tones on painted surfaces and dark natural wood for the rest. With its exposed beams, rafters and other structural details, the Craftsman’s lack of pretension rebuffed fussy Victorian architecture, and the unity with nature and handmade details rejected the cheap mass production of the Industrial Revolution. “When you walk in, you see there is a lot of handwork in there,” said Kevin Doherty, a residential design consultant and lecturer who lives in a 1919 Craftsman in Long Beach. “In the back of your mind it’s ‘Someone made this, and they put a lot of time into it and a lot of love into it.’” Brothers Charles and Henry Greene, architects of the Gamble House and numerous other pillars of Craftsman architecture, didn’t invent the bungalow style, Bosley said, but “they refined it and really set a higher standard for it.” In addition to